Planetary hours | Wikipedia audio article

Planetary hours | Wikipedia audio article


The planetary hours are an ancient system
in which one of the seven classical planets is given rulership over each day and various
parts of the day. Developed in Hellenistic astrology, it has
possible roots in older Babylonian astrology, and it is the origin of the names of the days
of the week as used in English and numerous other languages. The classical planets are Saturn, Jupiter,
Mars, the Sun, Venus, Mercury and the Moon, and they take rulership over the hours in
this sequence. The sequence is from slowest- to fastest-moving
as the planets appear in the night sky, and so is from furthest to nearest in the planetary
spheres model. This order has come to be known as the “Chaldean
order”.As each day is divided into 24 hours, the first hour of a day is ruled by the planet
three places down in the Chaldean order from the planet ruling the first hour of the preceding
day; i.e. a day with its first hour ruled by the Sun (“Sunday”) is followed by a day
with its first hour ruled by the Moon (“Monday”), followed by Mars (“Tuesday”), Mercury (“Wednesday”),
Jupiter (“Thursday”), Venus (“Friday”) and Saturn (“Saturday”), again followed by Sunday,
yielding the familiar naming of the days of the week.==History==
The astrological order of the days was explained by Vettius Valens and Dio Cassius (and Chaucer
gave the same explanation in his Treatise on the Astrolabe). According to these authors, it was a principle
of astrology that the heavenly bodies presided, in succession, over the hours of the day. The Ptolemaic system of planetary spheres
asserts that the order of the heavenly bodies, from the farthest to the closest to the Earth
is: Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, Sun, Venus, Mercury, Moon (or, objectively, the planets are ordered
from slowest to fastest moving as they appear in the night sky).In astrological theory,
not only the days of the week, but the hours of the day are dominated by the seven luminaries. If the first hour of a day is dominated by
Saturn (), then the second hour is dominated by Jupiter (), the third by Mars (), and so
on with the Sun (), Venus (), Mercury (), and
the moon (), so that the sequence of planets repeats every seven hours. Therefore, the twenty-fifth hour, which is
the first hour of the following day, is dominated by the Sun; the forty-ninth hour, which is
the first hour of the next day, by the Moon. Thus, if a day is labelled by the planet which
dominates its first hour, then Saturn’s day is followed by the Sun’s day, which is followed
by the Moon’s day, and so forth, as shown below. According to Vettius Valens, the first hour
of the day began at sunset, which follows Greek and Babylonian convention. He also states that the light and dark halves
of the day were presided over by the heavenly bodies of the first hour of each half. This is confirmed by a Pompeian graffito which
calls 6 February 60 a “Sunday”, even though by modern reckoning it would have been a Wednesday. Assuming that this graffito used the sunset
naming convention of Valens, it would follow that 6 February 60 was a Wednesday according
to the sunrise naming convention used in modern astrology, suggesting that there may be an
unbroken continuity of weekdays connecting the modern period to the 1st century AD at
least.These two overlapping naming systems continued to be used by Alexandrian Christians
during the 4th century, but the days in both were simply numbered 1 to 7. Although names of planets (or the gods eponymous
of the planets) were not used, the week beginning on Wednesday was named in Greek ton theon
([day] of the [planetary] gods), as used by the late 4th century editor of the 328–373
Easter letters of Bishop Athanasius, and was named tentyon (a Ge’ez transcription of the
Greek words) in a table of Easter dates for 311–369 that survives in an Ethiopian copy. The day of the week of Thoth 1 of the Alexandrian
calendar and of Maskaram 1 of the Ethiopian calendar, the first day of their respective
years, is given using the ton theon and tentyon respectively, both weeks beginning Wednesday
=1 in a column of 532-year Paschal tables. In a neighboring column of those same tables,
both first days are also given a day of the week called the Day of John with a week beginning
Sunday=1. Both the ton theon and tentyon of these first
days of the Alexandrian and Ethiopian years are numerically identical to the day of the
week of the next March 24 in the Julian calendar using a Sunday=1 week, which medieval computists
called the concurrent. These overlapping weeks are still used in
the Ethiopian computus.==Table of hours==
A table of hours is shown for a sequence of seven days, with the day of the week indicated
both for the sunrise (hour 1) and the sunset (hour 13) naming conventions.==Astrological significance==
Calculation of the planetary hours played a certain role in Renaissance astrology and
magic. Astronomical tables published in the late
15th or during the 16th century often included a table of planetary hours with their significations,
but their application was of limited importance to astrology as practiced, with Cornelius
Gemma explicitly stating that he accorded them little weight.The 16th-century Key of
Solomon has a chapter on the topic, giving examples for the types of magic considered
appropriate for the days or hours associated with each planet, for example: In the Days and Hours of Saturn: the summoning
of Souls from Hades, but only of those who have died a natural death
In the Days and Hours of Jupiter: obtaining honours, acquiring riches, contracting friendships,
preserving health In the Days and Hours of Mars: experiments
regarding War, to arrive at military honour, acquire courage, overthrow enemies, etc.;
in the hours of Mars: summoning Souls from Hades, especially of those slain in battle. In the Days and Hours of the Sun: experiments
regarding temporal wealth, hope, gain, fortune, divination, the favour of princes, to dissolve
hostile feeling, and to make friends. In the Days and Hours of Venus: forming friendships,
for kindness and love, joyous and pleasant undertakings, travelling; in the hours of
Venus: lots, poisons, preparing powders provocative of madness, etc. In the Days and Hours of Mercury: eloquence
and intelligence, promptitude in business, science and divination, etc.; in the Hours
of Mercury: undertaking experiments relating to games, raillery jests, sports, etc. In the Days and Hours of the Moon: embassies,
voyages, envoys, messages, navigation; reconciliation, love, and the acquisition of merchandise by
water; in the hours of the Moon: making trial of experiments relating to recovery of stolen
property, for obtaining nocturnal visions, for summoning Spirits in sleep, and for preparing
anything relating to Water.==See also==
Hellenistic astrology Planets in astrology==Notes====External links==
Extensive information on planetary hours (renaissanceastrology.com) Current planetary hour and day for many cities
(lunarium.co.uk) Planetary Hours Calculator (astrology.com.tr)
Planetary Hours Excel worksheet (dearbrutus.com) ChronosXP – Free planetary hours software
for Windows Al-Saat – Urdu/Arabic/Persian planetary hours
software for Windows

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