Hello my dear friends, who are you? I’m Arith Härger and today I’m going to talk about the elder futhark Specifically why that usual familiar sequence of the elder futhark. I have received this question many times Along with another question which is “why the elder futhark sometimes ends with the runes- Dagaz and Othala, or the other way around by the way, I would like to dedicate this video to Ms Andrea Grillo from Uruguay who sometimes makes the Latin American subtitles You can find on some of my videos Thank you very much madam for your help and support andt all of you, if you want- You can also contribute with subtitles in your own languages all of my videos are opened to receive subtitle contributions and also, of course a very special thanks to the Scandinavian studies group from Uruguay in which ms Andrea Grillo is part of a big hug to all of you and thank you very much for your support my dear friends and… I’m not done yet! 😛 I would like to dedicate this video to two of my patrons Ms Andrea Favoto and Ms Siddha Giovanna Bellini, of the Italian school of archetypal runology Thank you very much for your support my dear ladies Now… Let’s get started and I hope all of you enjoy this video So first things first Why does the elder futhark sometimes ends with Dagaz and Otahal or the other way around In all honesty… I don’t know I don’t know why sometimes it ends with Dagaz at the very end But here’s a possible exoteric explanation before the academic explanation and also linked to mythology Dagaz at the end- probably because to some people it makes sense Dagaz in the in the end as being the representation of “day” or “dawn” as we understand it from the rune poems following the pagan belief in the cycle of all things expressed in the myths of Ragnarok for instance, a cycle of birth life death and rebirth So it makes certain sense ending in “dawn” in a sense of new day, light upon the world a newr beginning, the beginning of a new cycle, as the exoteric meaning of Dagaz is also “awakening” But also rebirth. This idea is very well expressed actually in Norse myths in the entire process since creation Coming from darkness and destruction and the death of Ymir to create the physical cosmos and As life progresses it eventually reaches the point of the beginning of the end With the death of Baldr, which is an event that marks the point when everything starts to develop in order to provoke Ragnarok and a new destruction of the physical cosmos to remake anew The rebirth of all things and a new and better cosmos is created and a new “dawn” appears To start a new cycle until the new cycle and new life eventually also reaches its end to start anew again But what you will find more often in the elder futhark is it ending with Othala So when we look at the elder futhark and its usual sequence we have the sense that, as a whole, it is a symbol of progression the order of the symbols, the letters, is a step by step development of meaning creating a coherent whole But this is not as simple as this and I shall explain further ahead this usual order of the- of the so called elder futhark The 24 runes divided in rows of eight anyway, as said before there is only one exception to this basic rune order and it is with the final two runes which is Dagaz and Othala, or vice versa now a more academic explanation in a few- historic rune rows these two are reversed frequently; the symbolic reason for this might derive from the fact that this Standard runic order is related directly to the cycles of both the day and the year Each rune, each runic symbol, representing some quality of its corresponding time and that’s it Take a look at the note I left here In other representations of the elder futhark The rune row of the elderr futhark might even end with Jera It’s quite uncommon to see this and this is without a doubt a modern invention Probably because it makes sense to some people nowadays Ending the elder futhark with Jera, and I don’t blame them and here’s why: The reason why the rune row, this rune row, the elder futhark starts with the runes Fehu- Uruz, Thurisaz, Ansuz, Raido and Kaunaz making the “word” Futhark and the rest of the sequence and finally ends with Dagaz and Othala, or vs versa is because of the rune stone, which was perceived- to be the oldest rune stone and it contains this sequence and this sequence to this day has been carried out as- as to be the “true one” And so people continue to use it to this day in other words There’s no telling if those who used the runes really used this sequence and the “futhark” is only called this way because of the- Obviously the first six runes in the beginning which means it was so-called the same reason why we called “alphabet” to the Alphabet because of the two first letters A and B, alpha and beta From the Greek alphabet, right? the same idea from the Classical Greek set of words that compose their alphabet was transported to the symbols of the runes the oldest dating runes of the Germanic world have this sequence and so those who found it called it “futhark”, simply because of the sixth first words That form this sequence. However, it must be noted down that the “futhark” isn’t an actual alphabet at all but symbols that express a variety of ideas and phenomenon of the natural world, the universe and the human condition and the human interaction with the forces of the natural world. It is a writing system not an alphabet So it was assumed as an alphabet and therefore the same idea of A and B, alpha and beta – Alphabet – was transported to the runes. Again, I repeat, there simply not a single clue that makes us believe The sequences of the runes were the one right here so familiar to us the one we have here of the Elder futhark. In fact the oldest known runic writing system and subsequently it’s also an actual alphabet dates back to 7500 years ago – iberian middle neolithic – and it’s thought to be older and it is a runic writing system. In fact from northern Portugal. I’ve done a video about it and you can take a look at it But let’s move on to explore in more detail the sequence of the elder futhark, this sequence so familiar to us The Elder futhark as we know it today With the sequence so familiar to us as shown in here comes from the Kylver Stone It’s from Sweden, so it’s probably pronounced Kylver Which dates back to- 400 of the Common Era, 5th century- early 5th century I’ll show it to you in a moment and let’s explore from there This stone was considered to be the stone that shows the “first runic alphabet” Even though it’s not an actual alphabet the Kylver stone Has this usual sequence so called “the elder futhark” And so it was since then used like this in this sequence so far there is nothing that explains why the Germanic peoples chose to make that specific sequence beginning with “Futhark”, and the rest of the runes on this specific stone. There’s no explanation at all. I repeat Because I know- I understand this may be hard to accept for some people the sequence shown in here said to be the “normal sequence” of the elder futhark is a standardization of the rune row found in the Kylver stone This rune Row is often referred to as the “first runic alphabet” But that’s just the idea that was formulated when this runic stone, rune stone, was found in 1903 in Gotland, Sweden. This idea was formed and accepted like that due to this finding and it remained like this till our days and we accept this sequence to be not only the “normal sequence” but also as the “first runic alphabet”, which is not at all I shall return to this picture of the Kylver stone, but I just want to share with you my theory for the reason behind Possible reason behind the choice of this sequence in this rune stone, this specific rune stone Clearly it’s not a runic alphabet and therefore it does not represent a sequence of an alphabet, and we may never know why this Sequence in this stone why whoever carved these runes, these runic symbols Chose specifically to put them in this order, but I have a theory and it’s just a theory Nothing that we can prove for now, and no one seems interested anyway in improving anything because for a little bit more than a hundred years We have accepted this sequence to be the “true” and “normal” sequence of an alphabet that isn’t actually an alphabet But here’s my theory During the migration period between roughly the fourth century Up until the 6th century Among the Germanic peoples there is a tradition flowing and entering in Scandinavia Which is the tradition of name giving, based on the name of a deceased person usual someone within the family I have expressed this, on the video about the rebirth in Norse religion To a child it was often given the name of the father or grandfather or some other person of great renown it could be anyone but mostly names within the family to carry out the name and This is intimately tied with the belief in rebirth and by acquiring the name of the deceased The dead person, the recently dead, the child inherits the qualities of the deceased, but this doesn’t matter now I’ve already explored that on the previous video What is important to say is that among Germanic peoples of the continent, not Scandinavia but continent, the custom of name giving was a little bit different it would be given to the child part of the name of the father be that the first part of the name or the last part of the name; a new name was given which contained part of the father’s name or it was also common to give a name to the child and the name contain the first letter of he father’s name, or the grandfather’s name If it were an H the child’s name would begin with an H for instance now as you know, most rune stones are memorial stones stones raised in memory of the dead, in memory of the deceased with particular inscriptions in memory of the dead person So let’s take a look at the Kylver stone again if indeed each runic symbol represents a letter in this runic stone We understand why twenty-four are in here and all different; each rune represents the initial letter of a name possibly or in other words each rune represents a different person and this is in fact a memorial stone for 24 people of some renown bear it with me now, if you please We don’t know how many runes there were most have been lost to us. We take these 24 runes as the exact number of runes of an alphabet that Isn’t in fact an alphabet. We simply don’t know how many runes were there- there were and They were certainly more than 24 it might be that these 24 runes carved in this particular rune stone and not in any other stone that has ever since been found this rune stone is actually a memorial stone for 24 different individuals and it’s particularly interesting two aspects in this inscription This row ends with a bind-rune It looks like a tree with six twigs to the left and eight to the right of a single rune stave This is possibly a bind rune of stacked Tiwaz runes, or possibly of 6 Tiwaz and/or 4 Ansuz runes There is a clear symbol here expressed at the end, a symbol of protection for the dead men Perhaps, maybe, if we remember the rune representative of the God Tiwaz for the Old Germans, and Týr for the Norse That rune is obviously Tiwaz, precisely the one more noticeable in here at least 6 Tiwaz runes in that bind-rune Týr plays a role in rune magic. The Tiwaz rune bears its name in historical times from Old Norse Týr anglo-saxon Ti and Gothic Tyz In the poem Sigrdrigumal- it teaches that if one puts Tiwaz runes onto a sword By carving them twice it will give victory, for instance In the migration period precisely during the time these runes were carved on this specific stone Not only in runic inscriptions butt also on bracteates, which are gold medals worn as jewelry The Tiwaz rune frequently appears as a sign of magical significance So this bind rune could have indeed some significance and in relation to the people to whom this Rune stone was raised to: in their memory Also take notice at this tiny little inscription It doesn’t matter how you read it. If it is from left to right or from right to left. It reads all the same Which is always connected to magical incantations But it may be that the word here expressed, if it was indeed intended to be a word might be a reference to perhaps the Germanic tribe to which These people belong to, maybe, perhaps of course this is just a theory and you can always comment down below and share your ideas every theory is valid until proven otherwise In conclusion the sequence of the Elder futhark is a standardization of the rune row found in the Kylver stone This is a rune row. Not the only or normal rune row and this rune row is often referred to as the “first runic alphabet” Strictly speaking it is not an alphabet, as said before. An Alphabet is commonly defined as a set of written signs or symbols which represent sounds in a language Alphabet is a standard set of letters that represent the phonemes of a spoken language used for its written form what we have here is a written formal, a writing system, not an Alphabet A written form can exist without an Alphabet, but an Alphabet doesn’t exist without a written form Because a written form – a writing system – can be the use of symbols or logographic elements to represent a word, an idea, or a phrase, not a letter Such is the case of the Egyptian hieroglyphs for instance. They are a form of writing but not an Alphabet right? and the word “alphabet” Shouldn’t even be the term used to designate this rune row in the first place Because as you know, alphabet, the word, is derived from the names of the first two letters in the Greek alphabet alpha and beta So this rune Row isn’t really an alphabet in that sense either But at the very least it is a “futhark” after the six signs in the beginning of the rune row, if we want to transport that same idea to this and this rune Row is just one rune row we don’t know if there are or were other rune rows or in which order the runes were set, if they had any order at all There’s nothing to explain why the person that carved these- this rune row, chose to carve them in this specific sequence But that’s the interesting part Almost all writing systems that were developed from the Greek or Roman alphabets have preserved the order of the letters With the rune row, any rune row, these characters – the runic symbols – Are put together completely differently, there is no ABCD and so on and so forth. There is a seemingly random alignment The sequence is completely rearranged so if the runes had indeed come from the old italic script influenced by the Etruscans as it is often said Maybe the runes would start with the runic symbols equivalent to the same letters in the Roman alphabet so the Germanic runes may not derive directly from contact with the Romans and their written culture but that influence came through another culture an influence from elsewhere, and if you have watched my previous video You know where it came from – from the West from the Iberian Peninsula from the actual oldest writing system which also happens to be the oldest runic writing system and Subsequently an alphabet, which is the Alvão writing system from Alvão northern Portugal a written form from a culture now lost to us but whose written form remained and it is a- a clear cultural phenomenon that went from the west into the east and came back go watch that video. Seriously. It makes your head hurt. I almost lost my wits doing that one I’ll put the link down below in the description as well One other thing before we go the Elder Futhark concerning its use for mystical purposes as well as for recording and writing Little or nothing has survived concerning the meaning of the runes or method of their reading My own rune series following this standardized rune row called the “elder futhark” As said before is something more exoteric And my own interpretations of the runes nothing strictly academic Well, I do talk about historical facts, obviously in those rune series, to reinforce my interpretations of the runes and their meaning Which are interpretations also based on real documents, rune poems for instance, right? But as a whole there’s nothing that tells us something concrete about their mystical purposes- the mystical purposes of the runes All right, my dear friends. I hope you have enjoyed this video. Thank you so much for watching See you on the next video and as always tack för idag!
(thank you for today!)