The Elder Futhark Sequence

The Elder Futhark Sequence


Hello my dear friends, who are you? I’m Arith Härger and today I’m going to talk about the elder futhark Specifically why that usual familiar sequence of the elder futhark. I have received this question many times Along with another question which is “why the elder futhark sometimes ends with the runes- Dagaz and Othala, or the other way around by the way, I would like to dedicate this video to Ms Andrea Grillo from Uruguay who sometimes makes the Latin American subtitles You can find on some of my videos Thank you very much madam for your help and support andt all of you, if you want- You can also contribute with subtitles in your own languages all of my videos are opened to receive subtitle contributions and also, of course a very special thanks to the Scandinavian studies group from Uruguay in which ms Andrea Grillo is part of a big hug to all of you and thank you very much for your support my dear friends and… I’m not done yet! 😛 I would like to dedicate this video to two of my patrons Ms Andrea Favoto and Ms Siddha Giovanna Bellini, of the Italian school of archetypal runology Thank you very much for your support my dear ladies Now… Let’s get started and I hope all of you enjoy this video So first things first Why does the elder futhark sometimes ends with Dagaz and Otahal or the other way around In all honesty… I don’t know I don’t know why sometimes it ends with Dagaz at the very end But here’s a possible exoteric explanation before the academic explanation and also linked to mythology Dagaz at the end- probably because to some people it makes sense Dagaz in the in the end as being the representation of “day” or “dawn” as we understand it from the rune poems following the pagan belief in the cycle of all things expressed in the myths of Ragnarok for instance, a cycle of birth life death and rebirth So it makes certain sense ending in “dawn” in a sense of new day, light upon the world a newr beginning, the beginning of a new cycle, as the exoteric meaning of Dagaz is also “awakening” But also rebirth. This idea is very well expressed actually in Norse myths in the entire process since creation Coming from darkness and destruction and the death of Ymir to create the physical cosmos and As life progresses it eventually reaches the point of the beginning of the end With the death of Baldr, which is an event that marks the point when everything starts to develop in order to provoke Ragnarok and a new destruction of the physical cosmos to remake anew The rebirth of all things and a new and better cosmos is created and a new “dawn” appears To start a new cycle until the new cycle and new life eventually also reaches its end to start anew again But what you will find more often in the elder futhark is it ending with Othala So when we look at the elder futhark and its usual sequence we have the sense that, as a whole, it is a symbol of progression the order of the symbols, the letters, is a step by step development of meaning creating a coherent whole But this is not as simple as this and I shall explain further ahead this usual order of the- of the so called elder futhark The 24 runes divided in rows of eight anyway, as said before there is only one exception to this basic rune order and it is with the final two runes which is Dagaz and Othala, or vice versa now a more academic explanation in a few- historic rune rows these two are reversed frequently; the symbolic reason for this might derive from the fact that this Standard runic order is related directly to the cycles of both the day and the year Each rune, each runic symbol, representing some quality of its corresponding time and that’s it Take a look at the note I left here In other representations of the elder futhark The rune row of the elderr futhark might even end with Jera It’s quite uncommon to see this and this is without a doubt a modern invention Probably because it makes sense to some people nowadays Ending the elder futhark with Jera, and I don’t blame them and here’s why: The reason why the rune row, this rune row, the elder futhark starts with the runes Fehu- Uruz, Thurisaz, Ansuz, Raido and Kaunaz making the “word” Futhark and the rest of the sequence and finally ends with Dagaz and Othala, or vs versa is because of the rune stone, which was perceived- to be the oldest rune stone and it contains this sequence and this sequence to this day has been carried out as- as to be the “true one” And so people continue to use it to this day in other words There’s no telling if those who used the runes really used this sequence and the “futhark” is only called this way because of the- Obviously the first six runes in the beginning which means it was so-called the same reason why we called “alphabet” to the Alphabet because of the two first letters A and B, alpha and beta From the Greek alphabet, right? the same idea from the Classical Greek set of words that compose their alphabet was transported to the symbols of the runes the oldest dating runes of the Germanic world have this sequence and so those who found it called it “futhark”, simply because of the sixth first words That form this sequence. However, it must be noted down that the “futhark” isn’t an actual alphabet at all but symbols that express a variety of ideas and phenomenon of the natural world, the universe and the human condition and the human interaction with the forces of the natural world. It is a writing system not an alphabet So it was assumed as an alphabet and therefore the same idea of A and B, alpha and beta – Alphabet – was transported to the runes. Again, I repeat, there simply not a single clue that makes us believe The sequences of the runes were the one right here so familiar to us the one we have here of the Elder futhark. In fact the oldest known runic writing system and subsequently it’s also an actual alphabet dates back to 7500 years ago – iberian middle neolithic – and it’s thought to be older and it is a runic writing system. In fact from northern Portugal. I’ve done a video about it and you can take a look at it But let’s move on to explore in more detail the sequence of the elder futhark, this sequence so familiar to us The Elder futhark as we know it today With the sequence so familiar to us as shown in here comes from the Kylver Stone It’s from Sweden, so it’s probably pronounced Kylver Which dates back to- 400 of the Common Era, 5th century- early 5th century I’ll show it to you in a moment and let’s explore from there This stone was considered to be the stone that shows the “first runic alphabet” Even though it’s not an actual alphabet the Kylver stone Has this usual sequence so called “the elder futhark” And so it was since then used like this in this sequence so far there is nothing that explains why the Germanic peoples chose to make that specific sequence beginning with “Futhark”, and the rest of the runes on this specific stone. There’s no explanation at all. I repeat Because I know- I understand this may be hard to accept for some people the sequence shown in here said to be the “normal sequence” of the elder futhark is a standardization of the rune row found in the Kylver stone This rune Row is often referred to as the “first runic alphabet” But that’s just the idea that was formulated when this runic stone, rune stone, was found in 1903 in Gotland, Sweden. This idea was formed and accepted like that due to this finding and it remained like this till our days and we accept this sequence to be not only the “normal sequence” but also as the “first runic alphabet”, which is not at all I shall return to this picture of the Kylver stone, but I just want to share with you my theory for the reason behind Possible reason behind the choice of this sequence in this rune stone, this specific rune stone Clearly it’s not a runic alphabet and therefore it does not represent a sequence of an alphabet, and we may never know why this Sequence in this stone why whoever carved these runes, these runic symbols Chose specifically to put them in this order, but I have a theory and it’s just a theory Nothing that we can prove for now, and no one seems interested anyway in improving anything because for a little bit more than a hundred years We have accepted this sequence to be the “true” and “normal” sequence of an alphabet that isn’t actually an alphabet But here’s my theory During the migration period between roughly the fourth century Up until the 6th century Among the Germanic peoples there is a tradition flowing and entering in Scandinavia Which is the tradition of name giving, based on the name of a deceased person usual someone within the family I have expressed this, on the video about the rebirth in Norse religion To a child it was often given the name of the father or grandfather or some other person of great renown it could be anyone but mostly names within the family to carry out the name and This is intimately tied with the belief in rebirth and by acquiring the name of the deceased The dead person, the recently dead, the child inherits the qualities of the deceased, but this doesn’t matter now I’ve already explored that on the previous video What is important to say is that among Germanic peoples of the continent, not Scandinavia but continent, the custom of name giving was a little bit different it would be given to the child part of the name of the father be that the first part of the name or the last part of the name; a new name was given which contained part of the father’s name or it was also common to give a name to the child and the name contain the first letter of he father’s name, or the grandfather’s name If it were an H the child’s name would begin with an H for instance now as you know, most rune stones are memorial stones stones raised in memory of the dead, in memory of the deceased with particular inscriptions in memory of the dead person So let’s take a look at the Kylver stone again if indeed each runic symbol represents a letter in this runic stone We understand why twenty-four are in here and all different; each rune represents the initial letter of a name possibly or in other words each rune represents a different person and this is in fact a memorial stone for 24 people of some renown bear it with me now, if you please We don’t know how many runes there were most have been lost to us. We take these 24 runes as the exact number of runes of an alphabet that Isn’t in fact an alphabet. We simply don’t know how many runes were there- there were and They were certainly more than 24 it might be that these 24 runes carved in this particular rune stone and not in any other stone that has ever since been found this rune stone is actually a memorial stone for 24 different individuals and it’s particularly interesting two aspects in this inscription This row ends with a bind-rune It looks like a tree with six twigs to the left and eight to the right of a single rune stave This is possibly a bind rune of stacked Tiwaz runes, or possibly of 6 Tiwaz and/or 4 Ansuz runes There is a clear symbol here expressed at the end, a symbol of protection for the dead men Perhaps, maybe, if we remember the rune representative of the God Tiwaz for the Old Germans, and Týr for the Norse That rune is obviously Tiwaz, precisely the one more noticeable in here at least 6 Tiwaz runes in that bind-rune Týr plays a role in rune magic. The Tiwaz rune bears its name in historical times from Old Norse Týr anglo-saxon Ti and Gothic Tyz In the poem Sigrdrigumal- it teaches that if one puts Tiwaz runes onto a sword By carving them twice it will give victory, for instance In the migration period precisely during the time these runes were carved on this specific stone Not only in runic inscriptions butt also on bracteates, which are gold medals worn as jewelry The Tiwaz rune frequently appears as a sign of magical significance So this bind rune could have indeed some significance and in relation to the people to whom this Rune stone was raised to: in their memory Also take notice at this tiny little inscription It doesn’t matter how you read it. If it is from left to right or from right to left. It reads all the same Which is always connected to magical incantations But it may be that the word here expressed, if it was indeed intended to be a word might be a reference to perhaps the Germanic tribe to which These people belong to, maybe, perhaps of course this is just a theory and you can always comment down below and share your ideas every theory is valid until proven otherwise In conclusion the sequence of the Elder futhark is a standardization of the rune row found in the Kylver stone This is a rune row. Not the only or normal rune row and this rune row is often referred to as the “first runic alphabet” Strictly speaking it is not an alphabet, as said before. An Alphabet is commonly defined as a set of written signs or symbols which represent sounds in a language Alphabet is a standard set of letters that represent the phonemes of a spoken language used for its written form what we have here is a written formal, a writing system, not an Alphabet A written form can exist without an Alphabet, but an Alphabet doesn’t exist without a written form Because a written form – a writing system – can be the use of symbols or logographic elements to represent a word, an idea, or a phrase, not a letter Such is the case of the Egyptian hieroglyphs for instance. They are a form of writing but not an Alphabet right? and the word “alphabet” Shouldn’t even be the term used to designate this rune row in the first place Because as you know, alphabet, the word, is derived from the names of the first two letters in the Greek alphabet alpha and beta So this rune Row isn’t really an alphabet in that sense either But at the very least it is a “futhark” after the six signs in the beginning of the rune row, if we want to transport that same idea to this and this rune Row is just one rune row we don’t know if there are or were other rune rows or in which order the runes were set, if they had any order at all There’s nothing to explain why the person that carved these- this rune row, chose to carve them in this specific sequence But that’s the interesting part Almost all writing systems that were developed from the Greek or Roman alphabets have preserved the order of the letters With the rune row, any rune row, these characters – the runic symbols – Are put together completely differently, there is no ABCD and so on and so forth. There is a seemingly random alignment The sequence is completely rearranged so if the runes had indeed come from the old italic script influenced by the Etruscans as it is often said Maybe the runes would start with the runic symbols equivalent to the same letters in the Roman alphabet so the Germanic runes may not derive directly from contact with the Romans and their written culture but that influence came through another culture an influence from elsewhere, and if you have watched my previous video You know where it came from – from the West from the Iberian Peninsula from the actual oldest writing system which also happens to be the oldest runic writing system and Subsequently an alphabet, which is the Alvão writing system from Alvão northern Portugal a written form from a culture now lost to us but whose written form remained and it is a- a clear cultural phenomenon that went from the west into the east and came back go watch that video. Seriously. It makes your head hurt. I almost lost my wits doing that one I’ll put the link down below in the description as well One other thing before we go the Elder Futhark concerning its use for mystical purposes as well as for recording and writing Little or nothing has survived concerning the meaning of the runes or method of their reading My own rune series following this standardized rune row called the “elder futhark” As said before is something more exoteric And my own interpretations of the runes nothing strictly academic Well, I do talk about historical facts, obviously in those rune series, to reinforce my interpretations of the runes and their meaning Which are interpretations also based on real documents, rune poems for instance, right? But as a whole there’s nothing that tells us something concrete about their mystical purposes- the mystical purposes of the runes All right, my dear friends. I hope you have enjoyed this video. Thank you so much for watching See you on the next video and as always tack för idag!
(thank you for today!)

56 thoughts on “The Elder Futhark Sequence”

  1. Ok, this is epic.

    But Ragnarök isn't the physical destruction of the cosmos, rather a symbolic destruction (or both!)

  2. Please Read: Forgot to say something. The Vadstena bracteate is another finding (and the only, aside from the Kylver Stone) that contains the “sequence” of the Elder Futhark. I think the Vadstena bracteate was a forgery. Its story doesn't convince me because it was supposedly found in 1774 when archaeology didn't exist yet, and yet it survived until the first half of the 20th century. Old findings such as that, without any proper equipment and treatment, never last that long and are often melted down or lost again, or traded over and over again, or simply disappear, especially metal due to corrosion due to contact with oxygen and without any treatment for over 2 centuries (I speak as an archaeologist and as someone who also deals with the restoration of archaeological metal artefacts). The Vadstena bracteate was stolen from the Swedish Museum of National Antiquities in 1938 and was never found to this day, just 2 decades after the Kylver Stone had been found which contains the "sequence of the Elder Futhark" which was precisely during this time that it was agreed that this was the official "sequence" of the Elder Futhark, but this idea, as said in this video, was only based on this finding alone, and after that there may have been attempts to forge items to prove that that was indeed the sequence, by finding other artefacts . During the early 20th century thousands of forgeries were made by many countries only to prove their claims based on nationalist political ideas. The Kylver Stone and the Vadstena bracteate are the only ones that contain this "sequence". The Kylver Stone is genuine, but I have my doubts on the Vadstena bracteate. Antiquaries and Museums of Antiquities have always been well known to contain and produce forgeries. The official story is that the Vadstena bracteate was "stolen" but I think it was taken out and destroyed by the Museum itself because it was a forgery. Many experts during the 20s of the 20th century were going to these museums all over Europe to make sure these items were genuine, and I think the Museum knew it was a forgery and got rid of it to avoid shame and dishonesty, which would be a hard blow on their business and on the names of the scientist involved. If there is no artefact to be study there is no proof it was genuine or false.

    Why was the Elder Futhark divided into 3 aetts? – I have read countless books and academic works and no one seems to be certain. Of the 24 runes of the so called Elder Futhark, there were probably more runes that have been lost to us (Anglo-Frisian Futhark consisted in 33 runic symbols, for instance), and the number 24 and divided into 3 rows might be an Etrusco-Italic influence, but nothing has been proven yet. The Etruscan alphabet had 26 characters; Archaic Latin had 21 characters, +2 added after the 1st century, adopting the Greek letters Y and Z, making it 23 characters (The Roman Emperor in the 1st century (41 to 54 CE) Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus tried to add 3 characters to the Archaic Latin Alphabet which would have made 24 characters, and this survived for a time, but did not last, and anyway the Germanic peoples only started to use the runes a century later in the 2nd century); Old Italic Alphabet consists in 27 characters. The 24 runes of the Elder Futhark correspond to letters of the Latin alphabet, which seems to have been indeed an Iron Age Italic attempt to create a “Germanic” alphabet. However, their names and meaning (runic characters of the Elder Futhark) are entirely reconstructed based on younger runic systems; we have no record of the names of the runes in the Elder Futhark, nor do we have a record of the meaning of each rune, but it has been deduced through comparison to younger developments, linguistic reconstruction and etymological research.

  3. Hi Arith! I just love your videos and if you want I would like to put some German subtitles into them, if thats possible!

  4. thank you very much arith well informed as always. are you familiar with the work of doctor jackson crawford, he seems to specialise in runes and his videos go into the subject in great depth.

  5. I find by singing the runes and envisioning their meanings helps me to "experience" the runes more deeply. When I use them as a kind of fortune telling device their meaning is more important than any letter they may represent. I believe that people would seek out a "shaman" stone carver to carve a memorial stone believing that the symbols were both informative and magical and that the average person wasn't literate in runes until later being used by traders to relay messages or put on weapons, jewelry etc. Even as graffiti in some places. I believe that because people were learning them from different shamans or whoever there wasn't a standard order. Some stones have them snaking around and even backwards. I was told that a person would have the stone carved and an incantation would accompany the carving giving it magical powers and then laid face down hiding the runes. You could imagine some "shamans" knew the person couldn't read runes or carve it themselves and since it was going to be hidden did some of them haphazardly and a bit sloppy not allowing for even spacing or even a readable order. Who was going to know? Well then they have been found hundreds of years later by some farmer and some make sense and others appear to be gibberish. Of course later on there was graffiti denoting that probably even a common warrior had a more standardized knowledge of the runes and carved things like "Bjorn was here" etc. which has been found even in Rome. I also think the runes have their origin somewhere in Indochina as the Gods may have and were imported to Scandinavia and then adapted into the culture. Whatever the case, thankyou for your research and information Arith. As modern practicers we do our best to fill in the blanks while adhering to what we do know as best we can. Which I believe is ok in order to preserve our native "religion". All religions evolve through the centuries so our modern version is no less legitimate. Thanks again. SKÅL!

  6. Arith is truly an Oracle of our Gods. Wisdom and knowledge far beyond his physical age leaves me standing in awe time and time again. Listen to him…

  7. Very informative, I've often wondered what has been lost through the ages and what may or may not simply be assumed and not proven. Not often will you find someone challenging the runes like this, it's good to see not everyone accepts everything as the ultimate truth. Much like the runes inspire, no? Haha.

  8. 😀 thank you so much Arith 🙂 but I am Mr Andrea Favotto hehehe 🙂 here in Italy it's a male's name 😀

  9. Could this be an accounting of lineage? A family's history of their ancestors wrote down for prosperity? It would make sense that if the stone indeed was a memorial stone that it was simply a way of recording a family or personal ancestry. A way to ensure that future generations would remember where they came from? This intrigues me. Thank you Arith for another thought provoking video.

  10. My insight, for its worth: The sequence is a battle objective, plan, put together by a group of men, each having input, to bring downfall to an enemy. The conflict is for their homes, land. They want the return of peace and harmony. The "tree" engraving represents the leadership of the group, all of one mind, a signature. The two short staves on the right side represent sons/boys, extensions of their fathers. Unfortunately, they may have undermined their efforts in the desire to be strategic with the runes. SUEUS is an amen, blessing, or summation, meaning: success, strength, means to an end, freedom and honor. They are fighting for their homes. We will never know the outcome.

  11. Está bueno tu canal pero no le entiendo vale pito no hay subtítulos en estamos el primero que vi si los demás no saludos buenas notas en verdad si son mágicos comprobado

  12. Very interesting theories for sure. Not to take away the current use and practice of the runes. If you recreate for your practice or solely rely on old fragmented pieces of a puzzle for your practice good luck!! “You have your way, I have mine as for the correct and only way it does not exists” Bravo Arith, a very compelling mind you have.

  13. Not what I had hoped for based on the title. My studies indicate that the sequence of Runes/their location in the Rune Row is important. They are like stepping stones in a person's evolution. I had hoped that this video would speak to that subject.

  14. The lost custom of name giving is a sad thing our modern society has forgotten about- I’m sure there are families that still do it but not many here in America but it’s a wonderful custom

  15. During this period, on other rune stones, where this same 24 letters appearing in what was written (not necessarily in the same order)? Or less, or more runes?
    Can we not infere the order from the Anglo-Saxon Futhark or the Younger Futhark sources?

  16. Makes me wonder about a lost civilization( atlantean?) Maybe. Like the gonchs of the cannery islands. That's fairly close geographically to the iberian peninsula

  17. Are you sure that there was a place called Portugal and it's not a myth like Atlantis? If so, please let us know about any of its mythical produce?

  18. Arith, could you tell me if herbalism was a magical practice by the ancient Germanic peoples (I know the Anglo Saxons practiced it, and that today Wiccans and Druids and Celtic tradition pagans practice and study it), and if so are there any resources that I could use to study and practice Germanic herbalism in its magical forms.
    Thanks Arith 🙂

  19. It always made sense to me that Fehu to Othala represents the journey from mortality & permanence to immortality & godhood, this is Odin's story. This is the same as the alchemical transmutation process, the creation of the philosopher's stone, and this is also the fool's or hero's journey which is depicted in the Tarot and most mythologies and fantasy stories (like the story of Sigurd for example). This also works on a more mundane level as impermanent things like trees, cattle, money and the mortal body can be used to make something permanent such as buildings, society, art, family.

    Freyr's Aett represents the material and safety of childhood, when one is nurtured by one's mother. Hagal's or Odin's Aett is the middle years and the connection to nature and the spiritual, the shamanic journey. Tyr's Aett is when you have grown up and reflect on your life with more wisdom, and you try to implement these experiences in society and try to make something permanent out of it. From this perspective, I think Dagaz as the last rune also makes sense as it can be seen to represent the realization of non-duality, i.e. Zen, Satori, so the order of the runes can also be seen as the spiritual journey to enlightenment.

    I think saying that the order doesn't matter is very strange if we compare the runes to Hebrew letters where the order very much does matter in a spiritual context, same thing with Greek letters, as "Alpha & Omega" is anything but arbitrary. Overall, I think we have to look past the dry archaeological bits of the runes and understand them from a more holistic spiritual perspective.

    Now I might be going too far here, but I think it's a very real possibility that Lord of the Rings can be seen as the same story, Tolkien was very well versed in Norse mythology and the German myth is obviously the key influence in his work. Frodo is the fool who meets the magician in the beginning and then completes the journey to enlightenment. He begins in a very safe and happy environment (Freyr's aett), he is then forced through hostile nature environments (Hagal's aett) and it all then escalates to big wars between civilizations (Tyr's aett). Frodo's name also begins with Fehu and ends with Othala, this might be a deliberate hint from Tolkien. I don't think it's too far-fetched since there's a lot of deep, hidden symbolism in his work, but I don't know.

  20. I wanted a Swastika tattooed on my upper arm here in GB but none would do it,, So I had the word tattooed on in runes,, people ask what does it say, So I say read it,,

  21. Thank you Arith for video! But i get little bit confused 😀 That what i was thinking there must be more than 24 runes and VedRusses say there is 3milion runes 1 rune have 5 positions so there must be 600000 runes, but i think they collected them from different traditions. But about Elder Furhark if there is more than 24 runes then we dont have complete system? And then have about runic yoga, mudras or Runic martial art Stav, teacher of this system say that he live in 45 generation, that something ~2000years, but runic poses are still 24. And then there is Weird rune(25), some people say its new, but some say not. Lets look on Odin name Wiliam Jones belive Vodan(Odin) is the same like Budha who come to India frome North, then all runes what we can find from north to est belongs to Elder Futhark!? Odin, Vodin, Voutan…. means wood or wind and in Budhist tradition we can find Forest tradition from Theravada budhists and their main practise i will call like emptiness/nothing, it starts with concentration on ņow and there' and contionius with concentration on your breath(wind) and ends with nothing 😀 any way if there is no connection between Budhas main practice(weird) and Elder futhark i will think north peoples practiced that too and its nothing new even if it dose't exist because it dosn't exist in material reality. Its like in tantrik hinduaism 107 male meditations, but only one female meditation… and i think we always can find some new male practice. Now i am confused to go deeper in my rune studies because it looks like endless way or go to budhist emptiness. Is Elder Furhark complete system or any one who read this have feeling that it missing something? For example 3D Yggdrasil with 9 worlds and 24 ways between them, i can simply make it with 28 or more ways between this worlds, why just 24. Is there some rational meaning why peoples limit their minds?

  22. I often cast the Runes,,in the right hands they
    can be very accurate so can the Tarrot cards,,
    But dont rely on them,,

  23. Thank you for this video and all the others I'm still very new to all this and tend to feel very lost as to facts and what I should be doing.

  24. I heard the Stone could be an explanation for secret runes where the bindrune at the end is a Repräsentation of the futhark row shown

  25. There was a common runic writing system in all megalithic culture in Europe?, from the Iberian Peninsule to the Britishs Islands, France, Ireland and Scandinavia, this is a interesting possibility.

  26. My initials have been passed down for generations, I really do like your theory, never felt like the alphabet fit with it. We can only come at runes from our level of understanding, many of us understand alphabets, maybe made into an alphabet by modern interpretation to help the mass understanding

  27. Might it be that the stone was used for divination? Maybe someone passed a hand along the row to feel which powers seemed to be active in relation to a particular question.

  28. I have a simple question , have u already heard about Tartaria the biggest country on earth , and it’s downfall and if so what u think about it would love to have ur point of view on that subject

  29. Great video as always! In the inscription Perthro and Iwaz also swapped places in comparison to how we usually sequence them. Any theories on that, Arith?

  30. I have no words, this is fantastic! Congratulations once again! I love your work! Thanks, thanks, thanks, your great!

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